Note: This is a summary of Wikipedia and related articles on the Romani, plus additional information from documentaries on Romani history and lifeways posted on Youtube.
The Romani, more popularly known as Gypsies or Roma, are an ethnic group with origins in north India, traditionally itinerant, and now living mostly in Europe and the Americas. In the past centuries until today, the Romani have been among the worst victims of national oppression.
Genetic research indicates that the Romani came from a single group that left northwestern India starting about 1,500 years ago, although the Dom people are a similar group that possibly developed from a separate branch. Similar migrations that share Romani and Dom cultures continued for the next centuries. They arrived in Western Asia and Europe around 1,000 years ago. In the many intervening centuries, they dispersed through central Asia and Europe, and from there to the Americas and elsewhere.
In the blog piece “Hawaii The Stolen
Paradise” from the WordPress site
, it is explained that “Hawaii was a recognised independent nation
prior to January 17, 1893.” That day, Hawaii’s indigenous
government “was illegally overthrown by the United States” and
since then, the US “has illegally assumed control over Hawaii,”
turning entire chunks of its islands into military bases that project
US power to much of Asia-Pacific.
This paper by Pio Verzola Jr. was first presented as a lecture during a symposium on science and technology sponsored by Agham-Youth, 23-24 September 1999, at the National Institute of Geological Sciences (NIGS) auditorium in UP Diliman, Quezon City. It was subsequently published serially in the IBON Perspectives magazine Vol. 1 (1999) Nos.18-20 (Sept. 27, Oct. 11, and Oct. 25). This version, which includes only minor sentence revisions and additions from the original, was reposted in 2001 among the documents of the UN World Summit on the Information Society (http://www.oalit.net/www.wsis-pct.org/IPR-alternative.html). Continue reading “Towards a People’s Alternative to ‘Intellectual Property Rights’”
Homo habilis lived in sub-Saharan Africa between 2.6 and 1.5 million years ago, during the Lower Paleolithic era. It is thought to have descended from the australopithecines. The habilis face was less protruding compared to australopithecines and most probably used primitive tools in a habitual way (thus the term “habilis,” or “handy”). The levels of intelligence and social organization in H. habilis are most probably more sophisticated than among australopithecines or chimpanzees.
The Australopithecina (australopiths) are a subtribe of the Hominini (hominin) tribe, which is also called the human clade. The australopiths are thus the closest relatives of the human genus Homo, from which emerged modern humans (Homo sapiens). Australopithecus species are also called the gracile australopiths, while the Paranthrophus species are the robust australopiths. The Ardipithecus appeared earlier, and may have been the ancestors of the other australopiths. Continue reading “Australopiths”