This paper by Pio Verzola Jr. was first presented as a lecture during a symposium on science and technology sponsored by Agham-Youth, 23-24 September 1999, at the National Institute of Geological Sciences (NIGS) auditorium in UP Diliman, Quezon City. It was subsequently published serially in the IBON Perspectives magazine Vol. 1 (1999) Nos.18-20 (Sept. 27, Oct. 11, and Oct. 25). This version, which includes only minor sentence revisions and additions from the original, was reposted in 2001 among the documents of the UN World Summit on the Information Society (http://www.oalit.net/www.wsis-pct.org/IPR-alternative.html). Continue reading “Towards a People’s Alternative to ‘Intellectual Property Rights’”
Homo habilis lived in sub-Saharan Africa between 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago, during the Lower Paleolithic era. It is thought to have descended from the australopithecines. The habilis face was less protruding compared to australopithecines and most probably used primitive tools in a habitual way (thus the term “habilis,” or “handy”). The levels of intelligence and social organization in H. habilis are most probably more sophisticated than among australopithecines or chimpanzees.
The Australopithecina (australopithecines) are a subtribe of the Hominini (hominin) tribe, which is also called the human clade. The australopithecines are thus the closest relatives of the human genus Homo, from which emerged modern humans (Homo sapiens). Australopithecus species are also called the gracile australopithecines, while the Paranthrophus species are the robust australopithecines. The Ardipithecus appeared earlier, and may have been the ancestors of the other australopithecines. Continue reading “Australopithecines”
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